What is multitasking?
According to Edward Hallowell multitasking is the
mythical activity in which people believe they can perform two or more tasks simultaneously as effectively as one
Very often that’s not what we’re really doing though. Often we’re just engaging in high frequency context switching – a rapid toggling among tasks rather than simultaneous processing. In other words we’re shifting our attention from one task to another and back again. Each context switch consists of two stages, “goal shifting”, which is where we decide what to do next, and “role activation”, where we switch to the set of rules required for the new task. We’re
Of particular relevance today is what Linda Stone calls Continual Partial Attention. This is the phenomenon of handling multiple information sources by skimming the surface of the incoming data, picking out the relevant details, and moving on to the next stream. The number of sources we interact with is increasing and these sources are increasingly being used concurrently. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation the amount of time spent using different media concurrently almost doubled from 1999 to 2005.
Can we truly multitask?
It is possible to do more than one task at once but the tasks have to be simple and familiar, and there can’t be too many of them. For example, if you’re driving, it is possible to hold a conversation with your passenger at the same time. However, changing gear is a complex operation involving the intricate coordination of two feet and a hand, and when you’re first learning to drive you won’t be chatting whilst you’re doing it. Eventually, though, it becomes a familiar task which is performed subconsciously. Facebook and a movie though, is more complex. It’s not really Facebook and a movie at all; it’s more like Facebook then movie, then Facebook then movie, then Facebook then movie.
Certainly, most things that are unfamiliar, or that we deem creative or worthwhile, or that we call work in the post-industrial age, will suffer or become impossible when we try to include them as part of a multitasking activity. It’s also true that many simple or familiar things can be performed better when focus is applied. While it’s true that driving can easily be combined with listening to your passenger or the radio, proper, high quality driving is an active, participatory process. If you’ve ever had a track day or driven on blue lights or better yet, listened to commentary whilst being driven on blue lights, you’ll be aware of the focus, attention to detail and information processing that’s required. And yet most of us, most of the time, drive from A to B in a blur, with little to no recollection of the driving process. It works well enough; usually. Driving is one of those activities for which “good enough” is usually good enough.
What’s the problem then?
The fact remains though that sometimes sometimes “good enough” turns out not to be. You’re four times more likely to crash if you’re using your phone and interestingly experienced drivers are, in general, slower to react to brake lights and traffic lights.
So, multitasking makes us error-prone. This often manifests itself as a reduction in quality rather than discrete or complete failure. Equally important, we’re less efficient when we multitask. We lose significant amounts of time when we switch between multiple tasks and we lose even more time if the tasks are complex, often suffering up to a 40% loss in productivity.
It is certainly difficult, and possibly impossible to learn new information while engaging in multitasking. Students who engaged in more multitasking reported more problems with their academic work. We also tend to lose our ability to spot things in our periphery and it has even been shown that multitasking is accompanied by a rise in stress hormones. It seems clear then, that multitasking impairs many of our cognitive abilities.
How Is the Brain Affected?
According to Pashler multitasking causes dual-task interference through three possible mechanisms:
- Capacity sharing. This is when a multitude of complex tasks consume too much of a mental resource to allow other tasks to continue.
- Bottlenecking. This is when a single, discrete mental resource is available for use by only one process at a time.
- Cross-talk. This is when similar sensor inputs route simultaneous and conflicting signals to the brain. Alternatively, it’s when outputs confuse the processing of other tasks.
Demographically speaking, contrary to popular belief, there’s very little evidence of any gender differences in multitasking ability. There’s also little evidence that younger people are better at it, although they do seem to be better at filtering out which information is worthy of their attention.
So why do we bother?
If we aren’t very good at multitasking, why do we bother? The fact is, even though we can’t do it, we want to do it, we think we can do it, and we can’t resist trying to do it. Multitasking makes us look busy and capable and efficient; in short, it makes us look good. Consequently it can be difficult to admit that we’re not very good at it, or that it doesn’t work. This is compounded by the fact that it’s easy to convince ourselves that rapid context switching is in fact true multitasking. In fact, the people who multitask the most are actually the least able multitaskers. Perhaps the most dangerous aspect of multitasking is that maintaining focus is hard; multitasking gives us a great excuse to procrastinate by dealing with urgent but unimportant alternative tasks. It’s often an excuse to pursue a more interesting or fun activity.
Is There a Solution?
Whilst it is true that the brain is incapable of performing multiple complex tasks at one time, even after extensive training, it is also true that people can be trained to switch tasks more efficiently.
The most important realisation is that your ‘to-do list’ is really a tree. You have long-term life goals, which require the completion of complex projects composed of smaller sub-projects which in turn are composed of individual actionable tasks. You can’t “build an ice-cream business” but you can “Google pistachio suppliers in Wakefield”. It’s these leaf nodes, the small, independent actionable tasks, which you need to add to your attention queue. Note that these things can be placed into a queue and don’t need to be in a tree. Once they’re in a queue you can deal with them one at a time, in some kind of order. Viewing your to-do list in its original tree form makes this very difficult.
Picking the appropriate granularity for your tasks is the next step. Get a feel for how long your optimal focused time is and try to split your projects into tasks of about this length. This allows you to focus on one task to completion before switching to another or taking a break. If you want to train up your focus, you can use a timer to steadily increase the time you focus on a task before taking a break.
Building strategies for handling distractions is the final component. Always have a ‘catch’ with you, whether it be a paper notebook, a phone app or a plain text document open on your computer. Use it to catch any incoming distractions that you don’t absolutely have to deal with right now. Catch it and forget it until your next break. Your strategy should be to recognise distractions for what they are, eliminate them where possible and schedule dealing with them where you can’t eliminate them. Your last resort should be an immediate response to a distraction. Included in distractions are things like email and Facebook. Schedule time slots to handle these things and make sure you turn off notifications.
William James described the youthful mind as having
an extreme mobility of the attention [that] makes the child seem to belong less to himself than to every object which happens to catch his notice.
For some people, James noted, this challenge is never overcome; such people only get their work done
in the interstices of their mind-wandering
It turns out that the quickest way to do many things is to do only one thing at a time.
The objective of this article is to provide the missing background information that most Drupal multi-site tutorials miss out. It’s these nuggets of wisdom that make the difference between a multi-site installation that works and one that’s a right royal PITA to set up and get going. The article supplies the tricks and tips needed whether you’re:
- On Windows or Linux
- Using Drupal 6.x or Drupal 7.x
- Wanting development and production setups
- Using a shared database or individual ones
Before we discuss the advanced tweaks you might want to do, it’s worth taking a minute to understand how a basic Drupal multi-site installation works. Most of the confusion I’ve seen seems to stem from not really grokking what’s going on during the install. So, we’ll do a quick walkthrough of the major conceptual points of a simple two-site setup.
Supporting Multiple Sites
When you unpack the Drupal code you end up with a two major conceptual components; the Drupal codebase itself and a subfolder (and its children) called
sites which is used to store the settings for your individual Drupal sites.
Although all your sites will use the same codebase, Drupal decides which of your sites to show based on the HTTP request that you give it through your browser. So, if you enter
http://site1.com in your browser, Drupal will look for a folder called
site1.com in its
sites sub-folder and display the content as dictated by the contents of that folder. Likewise, if you have a folder within
site2.com and you enter
http://site2.com in your browser, then Drupal will show the content for site2.com. In summary, create a folder for each site within the
sites sub-folder of your Drupal installation. This is the basic mechanism by which multi sites are supported in Drupal but it can be tweaked in a number of ways.
In addition to this, you need to set things up so that requests from your browser for
http://site2.com both get routed to the IP address of the machine hosting your Drupal code. You also need to make sure your web server is routing those requests to the right folder. The exact details of how to do this vary wildly depending on your situation but it’s trivially easy to find out how to do this so I won’t repeat it here. Google is your friend.
Finally, you need to create the sites themselves. To do this you need to copy
default.settings.php from the
sites\default folder into each of your site folders (
sites\site2.com in our example), rename it to
settings.php and make sure both it and the site specific folder are writeable. The last step is to point your browser to
http://site1.com to start the site installation. This process will make changes to your site specific
settings.php including storing info about which database Drupal should use for storing the bulk of your settings and content. Repeat this for each of your sites. Oh, don’t forget to set the privs on
settings.php back to read only.
That’s it. You’re all done. Note that we’re not setting up any themes or custom modules or views etc. This is just a basic bare-bones Drupal installation.
Overall, what’s happened here is that a single codebase is used by Drupal to translate incoming HTTP requests into pointers to the relevant site-specific subfolder of the main
sites folder. The installer builds your site by writing the site-specific setup info into the
settings.php file in those folders. These
settings.php files, in turn, point Drupal to the relevant database when it’s building content for display.
Development and Production Setups
The above scenario assumes you’re installing straight onto a production server. In practice this is a bad idea and you’ll normally want to build your sites on a development server, usually
localhost before you deploy to production and go live. How does Drupal support this situation?
When Drupal is looking for the relevant
sites sub-folder, it doesn’t simply look for an exact match in the URL. If you take a look at the comments near the top of
settings.php you’ll see the search order that Drupal uses to do this. Making use of this search order usually allows you to build a site in development and then send it to production with a minimal amount of changes.
In Drupal 6 this is the only option you’ve got but in Drupal 7 a new file has been introduced to the top level of the
sites folder called
example.sites.php. Copy this file to
sites.php in the same folder and edit it. Down at the bottom are a couple of example site mappings. Edit these to suit your needs. So, in our example, with
sites/site2.com sub-folders we would use the following:
$sites['site1'] = 'site1.com'; $sites['site1'] = 'site2.com';
Then, if you’re working on your development server you enter
http://site1 in the browser (without the .com suffix) and Drupal will use the
sites.php file to map this into a request for the folder
sites/site1.com. On your production site, accessed through
http://site1.com in the browser (with the .com suffix) Drupal will not use these mappings and will just go straight to the
sites/site1.com folder automatically.
Some hosting services limit the number of databases you can create. Drupal allows you to share a single database between multiple sites.
Before you run the Drupal installer you need to create your database(s) yourself using something like cPanel or phpMyAdmin. If you want to dedicate a database to each Drupal site then just create databases called
site2. If you want to share a single database between all your Drupal sites then create a database called
drupal. Finally if you want to share a single database between all your Drupal sites as well as other stuff then just create a database called
If you’re using either the
drupal or the
shared options then you’ll need to tell Drupal you’re using a shared database. You do this by specifying a table prefix on the Advanced Settings section of the database configuration page which you’ll encounter as part of the installation script. In our example we might use the prefixes
What About sites/all and sites/default?
In addition to the site specific sub folders we created under the Drupal
sites sub folder, you’ll probably also notice Drupal has its own sub folders here called
sites/all. The first of these is used by Drupal to store your site if it can’t fins a site specific folder like the ones we created. The second is used to store modules and themes that will be available to all your Drupal sites.
Modern browsers now include a set of development tools allowing you to inspect various aspects of your HTML, CSS and scripting from within the browser itself. Nikita Vasilyev has now produced an extension for Chrome which allows changes to CSS and JS, made in the Chrome dev tools environment, to be automatically saved back into the source files. Excellent.
Installation is straightforward, if a little long-winded. Just follow the instructions. Addy Osmani’s produced a great walkthrough video and accompanying article. There are a few gotchas that might catch out the unwary or the uninitiated though.
- Don’t forget to click the ‘Install the Server’ link at the bottomof the ‘How To Install’ section.
- If you get errors about
npmnot being found during the server install (on Windows) then reboot your machine and try again.
- Once the server’s installed you need to run ‘autosave’ at a command prompt and this needs to be running whenever you want to autosave from the dev tools. You might want to start this automatically at boot up.
- If you’ve got a message in the command prompt after running ‘autosave’ saying something like
Dev Tools Autosave 0.3.1 is listening on http://127.0.0.1:9104then you should be all set.
- Note that the extension won’t save changes made to HTML files. So if you’ve got any inline CSS, changes made to it won’t be saved. Your CSS needs to be in an external
- If it seems to be setup OK but it’s still not saving, make sure you’re running the latest version of the extension. Go to
chrome://extensionsin your browser and check DevTools autosave is running at least version 1.1.1
- If you’re using SASS/SCSS/LESS for your CSS then obviously any changes you make to the CSS aren’t going to get ported back into the
- Finally, if you’re making quick experimental changes in the browser then keep in the back of your mind that you’re working on your CSS files and you’re busy overwriting their contents. Those quick ‘look-see’ changes you’re making are now persistent so it’s easy to lose stuff if you get too enthusiastic.
When you upload an image to a WordPress media library, WordPress will create and store a variety of different sized copies of it, by default these are called
full size. When inserting an image into a post you can select which size you want to insert:
You can alter these default sizes from the admin panel under Settings; Media like this. However, if you’re developing a theme you might want to do this from within your theme’s code in order to ‘enforce’ specific sizes on your users without requiring them to edit admin settings. For example, suppose you’re wanting to maintain a vertical rhythm in your pages by using a fixed line-height in your CSS (e.g. 18px). In that case you’re likely to want your images to conform to that vertical rhythm as well by setting their height to be a multiple of 18px. You can do this by adding the following code to your
update_option('thumbnail_size_w', 144); update_option('thumbnail_size_h', 144); update_option('medium_size_w', 288); update_option('medium_size_h', 216); update_option('large_size_w', 480); update_option('large_size_h', 360);
In future, that will result in the following settings when you insert an image:
Note that this will not affect previously uploaded images; they’ll still retain the dimensions they were uploaded with. There are various plugins available to convert them to your new sizes though.
Here’s a logo I worked up for cars.net who recently ran a design competition for their new site branding. The brief was to provide a friendly and approachable image, suited to family purchasers. They wanted to use a custom font in black, and the logo was to incorporate an image of a car using a combination of blue and green to provide impact. Unfortunately my design was not chosen (you can see the winning design here) but I wanted to showcase it here for a couple of reasons.
Firstly, my personal view is that I produced a superior logo to the winner. However, that counts for nothing, and quite rightly so. Ultimately, the client makes the choices they want to make. They know their requirements better than their content producers. That’s not to say some clients’ design sensitivities aren’t in need of a little gentle calibration at times, but more often than not disagreements over the ‘correct’ choice are a matter of subjective, personal choice and in this case it’s the role of a designer to defer to the wishes of his client.
Secondly, although I still like the logo I designed, there are a couple of things I’d do to improve it. I’m happy with the cars themselves, but the font would benefit from being a heavier weight but a smaller size, to tie in more with the form of the cars’ tyres. I tried this at the time but didn’t like it then. I also tried to preserve the purity of shape for the letter forms. They’re very strictly cast on a circular geometry and while that works really well for the ‘cars’ part of the text, the ‘net’ section feels unbalanced and the letter ‘t’ appears leaning and crushed. With hindsight, I think I’d sacrifice some of the circularity for a better feel. The point here is that nothing we produce is ever perfect. Both the designer and the client should be prepared to revisit work at a later date as often it’s possible to spot potential improvements only after a period of time has elapsed. But having said that, it’s also important to strike a balance and to recognise when effort, and indeed money, can be best spent elsewhere.
There are two factors that go to making a good design; constraints and creativity. These two factors pull in opposing directions, with constraints limiting your available options and creativity increasing your options. Counter-intuitively, contraints are in many ways your friends and creativity is often the enemy. After all, there are infinitely many ways to creatively fill a blank page and only our constraints allow us to limit that infinity to the single product we deliver.
So what kinds of things constrain us? We usually have certain visual elements that need to be included, whether that be shape, text, composition, images or colour. We are aware of the perception or ‘feel’ that the client wants us to create in the product. By far the most powerful constraint available to us though is our own sense of taste and we’re all familiar with using this to limit what we produce.
These kinds of things are our high level constraints and they certainly help to limit the design space to more manageable proportions. We need to impose far more detailed constraints as we focus in on a few designs to present to the client though. Let’s look at the constraints I used to design my own logo. I’ll start with a brief summary of the top level constraints I set up for myself but I want to focus on the more fine-grained detail as that’s where people often struggle.
I’m a web designer. I don’t sell cars or houses and I’m not a dentist; all of which have obvious objects associated with them. Web design is more ephemeral. I’m not really an artist, I’m not really an engineer, I’m not really a programmer; all of whom have obvious tools associated with them. Web designers are a bit of all three which makes for a messy logo. I’ve never been a fan of things like the double-barreled, random-arbitrary, adjective-noun naming convention that blossomed in the dot-com boom of the back-end of last century; purple-tomato or quizzical-kangaroo make for obvious logos but they’re content-free. What I really wanted to showcase is the personal nature of my business and my clean, uncluttered and engineered design style. Mike Higginbottom is a good solid no-nonsense Northern name which is nothing if not memorable. So I went with that and that leads to the meat of this article: what can we do with the letters M and H?
Analysis of Form
Here’s a pairing of a nice simple uppercase M and H in all their glorious, huge point size Arial ubiquity. Just let them batter your eyes with their brutal forms for a moment, standing there like some typographic superheroes, all hands on hips.
Here’s a quick comparison. There’s nothing that’s not obvious here but it’s the recognition of these factors that provides our contraints.
- Both are constructed of straight stems and bars. No soft curving bowls or shoulders here.
- Both have rectangular, and potentially square, overall shapes.
- Both have four very strongly defined corners.
- Both have two strong vertical stems enclosing the counters of the letter forms.
- Both are what we might call spiky, the M slightly more so than the H.
- Both have a crossbar connecting the uprights and forming the main difference between the two letters.
- The M has a two part diagonal crossbar, here filling the whole of the internal space.
- The H has a horizontal crossbar, here set slightly above centre.
- The H is substantially slimmer than the M.
OK, let’s look at them in lower case.
There are some obvious differences between the upper and lower case glyphs and similarities in the lower case:
- We still have our very strong vertical main strokes.
- There’s a strong emphasis in the verticals being on the left of the letter forms.
- The crossbars are now much softer, curving shoulders.
- The shoulders of both letters are much more similar in the lower case forms.
- We have retained the spikiness at the baseline.
- The letter h is almost exactly the same as the left half of the m, but with an ear rather than a full ascender.
- The letter m has a repeated shoulder.
So, let’s see what we can do with this information. Obviously we can play with the detailed form of the letters, but let’s start by considering their relationship to each other in space. We’re looking for MH rather than HM so we need to consider the preceived ordering of the letters; the M needs to appear either above or to the left of the H, or possible both. For the upper case letters we can generate things like the following:
None of these are particularly strong as they stand with the third perhaps looking the most promising for future development. The diagonal design does have the advantage of providing two white space corners at top right and bottom left which might be useful in some contexts so it shouldn’t be discounted entirely. But that’s what I’m going to do anyway.
The vertical design is pretty unappealing, essentially because of its tall and spindly nature, but it does have potential for further work. Here are a few basic structural variations on that theme, all of which involve finding ways to shrink the height and introduce some measure of compressed solidity. All of these really serve only as the basis for a more refined logo. The key here is that we’ve used the constraints listed above to focus our design effort onto a few structural forms worthy of exploration.
The first example works by thickening the strokes and bringing the crossbar’s lower apex of the M much higher up into the centre of the letter. The remaining three work in a similar way but they encapsulate the H within the body of the M, using the descending apex of the M to key into the top of the H. Notice how all these examples are very unpolished. Force yourself to focus on the structure by leaving the details unfinished.
So, what do we get if we use a horizontal arrangement:
The first design uses the two outer stems to envelope the letters. The design in the top right introduces the idea of angling the stems but is, in itself, not very appealing. However, in combination with the idea of interleaving the two letters, it leads on to the bottom two structures which show more promise and are worth investigating further.
Lower Case Combinations
If we take the lower case letters we can exploit the obvious similarities in the structure of the loops to get the following two images. The second of the two merges the letters even more and has the advantage of providing symmetry which could be exploited to further refine the design. For example, removing the ear on the M and reversing the thinning on the left hand loop would provide a reflection about the central ascender stem.
Where to Go From Here
This article has presented some basic techniques for examining the structure of a small selection of letter forms. This is pretty mechanistic though and the art of design comes from adding a more intangible creativity to these basic technical techniques. For my own site, which uses a hexagonal motif throughout, I extended the basic uppercase horizontal arrangement by placing the letters on adjacent faces of an isometric representation of a cube. In 2D space this takes the form of a regular hexagon. Extruding the two letters backwards and allowing them to intersect gave the following logo:
If you want to have a play then feel free to take the above ideas as a baseline and polish them into useable designs. Alternatively grab another pair of letters and study them in a similar way.
Back in the old days the canonical example of an over-used effect was the HTML
<blink> tag. One of the top candidates today has to be the ‘glow effect’. Having said that, if used judisciously, it can be a very effective effect. So, when should you use it and how can you implement it?
When to Use a Glow
The short answer to this is rarely. There are some very specific instances when an obvious, in your face glow is appropriate. Scenes that naturally include a source of illumination are the obvious use case. Examples include space scenes, aurorae, fires and flames, bio-luminescence, glass objects, neon signs, sunlight through windows, water and ice.
More common, and often over-done, are glow effects in logos and lettering.
Perhaps the most common ‘correct’ usage would be in user interface elements such as glowing buttons etc.
Finally, glows are often employed to produce more abstract images.
How to Create a Glow in Photoshop
There are a thousand variations on a theme here but this should be enough of a recipe to get you started on the path to discovery.
- Create a new layer and select it.
- Use the Paint Bucket to fill it with black (#000000)
- Select white as foreground color.
- Select the Brush tool. Right-click anywhere on the image and set Master Diameter to 3px and Hardness to 100%.
- Create a smooth curved path using the pen tool.
- Right click the image, tick Simulate Pressure and select Stroke Path
- Open the Paths window and click below the work path to deselect it.
- Right click the layer and select Blending Options.
- Tick Outer Glow and select it. Set an appropriate colour.
After our successful collaboration on his company web site, Mike Rigby contacted me to help support his political campaign to become a local councillor in Somerset. He was looking for a vehicle to raise awareness of a number of issues in his local community and to focus action on solving them. He was already running successful Twitter and Facebook accounts to this end and wanted to support this with more formal, feature length articles.
Using existing campaign artwork as a basis for the bold web site theme, I set up a simple WordPress blog and supporting static content. Crucially, it had to be simple and efficient for Mike to update the site content himself and WordPress was the ideal mechanism to achieve this.
I was recently approached by Mike Rigby to make some changes to the web site of his carbon offsetting company, The Original Carbon Company. He already had a site in place using a custom written CMS system but after a couple of months of gradual improvements it became clear that we were really bumping up against the limits of what his CMS could achieve. I suggested we move to a WordPress solution and we worked together to produce a custom theme and a new site architecture. He was extremely pleased with the results and I think you’ll agree it’s a fantastic showcase for his company.